Research

Focus on Energy supports research through the Environmental & Economic Research and Development Program (EERD) and other research initiatives. 

EERD research projects allow Wisconsin to further its efforts towards reducing energy consumption, costs, and environmental impacts. In the last 10 years, more than 55 EERD research projects have been completed. 

All EERD projects are selected through a competitive request for proposals (RFP) process that occurs approximately once per year. Any individual or institution with a project relevant to Wisconsin is welcome to apply. 

To find out what’s been researched in the past, take a look at our completed project reports.

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Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Market Assessment and Savings Review Report

Subject: 
Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump
Author(s): 
Rich Hasselman
Institution: 
Tetra Tech
Date: 
2016-12

Wisconsin Building Code Project: Modular Homes, Phase I

Subject: 
Building Codes
Author(s): 
Linn, Graham, Hicks, Amalia
Institution: 
Sustainable Engineering Group, LLC
Date: 
2016-12

Wisconsin Building Code Analysis II

Subject: 
Building Codes
Author(s): 
Hicks Ph.D., Amalia, Linn PE, Graham
Institution: 
Sustainable Engineering Group LLC
Date: 
2016-06

Biogas Storage Farm AD Report

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Tetra Tech
Institution: 
Tetra Tech
Date: 
2015-04

Wisconsin Building Code Analysis: Identifying Low-Cost, High-Impact Measures

Subject: 
Program design
Author(s): 
Hicks, Amalia; Linn, Graham; Morner, Svein; DeRocher, Andy; Harris, Alex
Institution: 
Sustainable Engineering Group, LLC
Date: 
2015-04

Find and Flip: Motivating High Energy Users to Save Energy

Subject: 
Program design
Author(s): 
Keene, Ashleigh; Loew, Emily; Bensch, Ingo; Shukla, Raj; Kuntz, Kathy
Institution: 
Cool Choices and Energy Center of Wisconsin
Date: 
2015-03

Farm-based Bioenergy Infrastructure for Wisconsin: Too Big, Too Little or Just Right?

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Barford, Carol; Reinemann, Doug; Gollnik, Robert; Narayanan, Ash
Institution: 
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Date: 
2013-12

Impacts of Bioenergy Crop Production on Environmentally Sensitive Lands

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Ventura, Steve; McCown, Brent; Ruark, Matt; Ribic, Christine; Barford, Carol
Institution: 
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Date: 
2013-12

An Assessment of Woody Biomass Harvests in Northern Wisconsin

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Martin, Karl; Rittenhouse, Tracy; Anhalt, Christine; Knoot, Tricia; MacFarland, David; Bakshi, Baishali; Van Deelen, Tim
Institution: 
Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, University of Connecticut, University of Minnesota
Date: 
2013-12

Observing Carbon Fluxes and Potential Climate Change Impacts from Forest Land Management

Subject: 
Climate change
Author(s): 
Desai, Ankur
Institution: 
Dept. of Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Date: 
2013-12

Impacts of Climate Change on Fluxes of Carbon and Water in Northern Wisconsin Lakes and Wetlands

Subject: 
Carbon sequestration
Author(s): 
Watras, Carl, Hanson, Paul
Institution: 
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
Date: 
2013-08

Economic and Environmental Impact of Biomass Types for Bioenergy Power Plants

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Chunhui; Mueller, Jeff; Wipperfurth, Pamela
Institution: 
UW-Madison
Date: 
2013-08

Shedding Light on the Commercial Lighting Market in Wisconsin

Subject: 
Program design
Author(s): 
Monroe, Erinn
Institution: 
Opinion Dynamics Corporation
Date: 
2013-08

Energy Intensity and Environmental Impact of Integrated Dairy/Bioenergy Systems in Wisconsin

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Reinemann, Douglas J.
Institution: 
UW-Madison
Date: 
2011-03

Life Cycle Analysis of Pellet Fuels

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Katers, John
Institution: 
UW-Green Bay
Date: 
2011-03

Climate Projections in Wisconsin

Subject: 
Climate change
Author(s): 
Vimont, Daniel J.
Institution: 
UW-Madison
Date: 
2011-01

Consumer Adoption and Grid Impact Models for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Wisconsin

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Ventkataramanan, Giri
Institution: 
UW-Madison
Date: 
2010-10

Impacts of Forest Management Activities on Carbon Sequestration and GHG Emissions

Subject: 
Carbon sequestration
Author(s): 
Gower, S.T.
Institution: 
UW-Madison Dept of Forest Ecol
Date: 
2010-10

Impacts of Biomass Removal on Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in Wisconsin Northern Hardwood Forests

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Mladenoff, David J.
Institution: 
UW-Madison
Date: 
2010-03

Monitoring the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Northern Highland American Legion State Forest in Wisconsin

Subject: 
Climate change
Author(s): 
Watras, Carl J. (I)
Institution: 
WDNR
Date: 
2009-11

Evaluating Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration in the Upper Mississippi River Valley and Its Implications for Siting Wind Energy Facilities: A Workshop Series for Resource Agencies and Wind Developers

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Bub, Brian (I)
Institution: 
Natural Resources Consulting, Inc.
Date: 
2009-07

Impacts of Past and Future Changes in Climate and Atmospheric CO2 in Wisconsin Agriculture

Subject: 
Climate change
Author(s): 
Kucharik, Christopher
Institution: 
UW-Madison
Date: 
2008-10

Changes in Biodiversity in Selected Natural Communities Related to Global Climate Change

Subject: 
Climate change
Author(s): 
Anderson, Craig
Institution: 
WDNR, Natural Heritage Inventory
Date: 
2008-08

Monitoring the Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Northern Highland-American Legion State Forest in Wisconsin (NAHL): Phase II

Subject: 
Climate change
Author(s): 
Watras, Carl J. (II)
Institution: 
WDNR
Date: 
2008-08

Projecting Impacts of Greenhouse Gases on Carbon Sequestration by Wisconsin Forests

Subject: 
Carbon sequestration
Author(s): 
Kruger, Eric
Institution: 
UW-Madison, Forest Ecology
Date: 
2008-01

Mercury in Selected Fish Species Over Time

Subject: 
Mercury
Author(s): 
Schrank, Candy
Institution: 
WDNR Fisheries Mgmt
Date: 
2007-10

Mercury Chemistry in Power Plant Plumes

Subject: 
Mercury
Author(s): 
Levin, Leonard
Institution: 
EPRI
Date: 
2007-01

Fate and Transport of Mercury in a Recovering Watershed

Subject: 
Mercury
Author(s): 
Hurley, James P.
Institution: 
UW-Madison, USGS
Date: 
2006-09

Modeling the Effects of Forest Management Decisions on Carbon Sequestration

Subject: 
Carbon sequestration
Author(s): 
Gower, S.T. II
Institution: 
UW-Madison Dept of Forest Ecol
Date: 
2006-08

Measuring Vertical Fluxes of Gaseous Elemental Mercury in Wisconsin

Subject: 
Mercury
Author(s): 
Allen, Mark (Sheffy)
Institution: 
WDNR, Bur. Air Mgmt.
Date: 
2005-11

Lichen Bioaccumulation and Bioindicator Study near Alliant Energy Columbia Generating Facility

Subject: 
Particulate pollution
Author(s): 
Will-Wolf, Susan; Makholm, Martha
Institution: 
UW -- Madison
Date: 
2005-10

Population-based Methylmercury Exposure Assessment

Subject: 
Mercury
Author(s): 
Knobeloch, Lynda
Institution: 
WI Dept of Health & Family Services
Date: 
2005-07

Comparative Toxicity of Secondary Coal Combustion and Mobile Source Emissions in Wisconsin

Subject: 
Particulate pollution
Author(s): 
Rohr, Annette
Institution: 
EPRI
Date: 
2005-07

Mercury in Power Plant Combustion By-Products

Subject: 
Mercury
Author(s): 
Ladwig, Ken
Institution: 
EPRI
Date: 
2005-06

Evaluation of Fin Clips as a Non-lethal approach for Estimating Mercury Concentrations in Fish

Subject: 
Mercury
Author(s): 
Rolfhus, K; Sandheinrich, M.; Wiener, J.
Institution: 
UW-La Crosse
Date: 
2005-02

State of the Science on the Ecological Effects of Transmission Line Siting and Construction

Subject: 
Transmission
Author(s): 
Tikalsky, Susan M. & Joseph Cramer (I)
Institution: 
Resource Strategies, Inc.
Date: 
2004-06

Quantifying Carbon Storage in Wisconsin

Subject: 
Carbon sequestration
Author(s): 
Schnoor, Jerald L.
Institution: 
U Iowa
Date: 
2004-04

Land Use and Ecological Consequences of a Wood Gasification Energy Facility at UW-Stevens Point: A Spatial Analysis with Statewide Consequences

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Haines, Anna
Institution: 
UW-Stevens Point

Public Health Benefits in Wisconsin from Biomass Energy Production

Subject: 
Particulate pollution
Author(s): 
Sponseller, Bart (Bruss)
Institution: 
WDNR, Air Management

Using NEXRAD Weather Radar to Minimize the Impact of Wind Energy Farms on Migrating Birds

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Heglund, Patricia
Institution: 
USGS, La Crosse

Potential Effects of Climate Change on Inland Glacial Lakes and Implications for Lake Dependent Biota in Wisconsin

Subject: 
Climate change
Author(s): 
Meyer, Michael W.
Institution: 
WDNR

Impacts of Bioenergy Crop Production on Environmentally Sensitive Lands

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Ventura, Steve
Institution: 
UW-Madison

Downscaling Wind and Other Climatological Parameters of Relevance to Energy Production in Wisconsin

Subject: 
Climate change
Author(s): 
Lorenz, David, Vimont, Daniel
Institution: 
UW-Madison, Nelson Inst

Farmer's Willingness to Adopt Practices and Participate in Programs to Sequester Carbon

Subject: 
Carbon sequestration
Author(s): 
Nelson, Ed
Institution: 
WDNR

Identifying Tradeoffs Between Biomass Production and Biological Diversity in Wisconsin's Forests and Grasslands to Meet Tomorrow's Bioenergy and Biofuel Needs

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Webster, Christopher, Flaspohler, David, Roth, Amber
Institution: 
Michigan Technological University

Observing Carbon Fluxes and Potential Climate Change Impacts from Forest Land Management in Wisconsin

Subject: 
Climate change
Author(s): 
Desai, Ankur
Institution: 
UW-Madison, Atmos & Oceanic

Renewable Fuel Availability, Extraction and Usage Potential Impacts

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Peterson, Donald
Institution: 
Sustainable Resources Institute, Inc.

Identifying Climate Analogs and Potential Shifts in Forest Composition and Extent for Southern Wisconsin Under 21st Century Climate Change Scenarios

Subject: 
Climate change
Author(s): 
Williams, John
Institution: 
UW-Madison

Wisconsin Farm Biomass Production and the Emerging Carbon Economy

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Bradford, Carol
Institution: 
UW-Madison, SAGE

The Impact of Sustainable Forest Management on Long-Term Biomass Production and Forest Health: The state of the science

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Tikalsky, Susan M. & Cassandra Willard (II)
Institution: 
Resource Strategies, Inc.

Applying the Natural Heritage Inventory Classification System to Characterize the Natural Communities in the Ongoing Peatlands Study

Subject: 
Climate change
Author(s): 
Isenring, Christina
Institution: 
WDNR, Natural Heritage Inventory

Assessing Sustainability of Switchgrass Production in Southwestern Wisconsin

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Renz, Mark, Jackson, Randy
Institution: 
UW-Madison

Land-use, Soil Health, and Water Quality Changes with Woody Energy Crop Production in Wisconsin and Minnesota

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Zalesny, Ronald
Institution: 
USFS, Northern Research Station

Development of a Regional Wildlife Mapping Tool to Guide Renewable Wind Energy Project Siting in the Upper Mississippi River Basin's Driftless Area

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Bub, Brian
Institution: 
Natural Resources Consulting, Inc.

Impacts of Harvesting Woody Biomass on Nutrient Cycling and Biodiversity in Northern Hardwoods

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Donner, Deahn
Institution: 
U.S. Forest Service

Carbon Sequestration on Private Forests: Understanding the Silent Majority

Subject: 
Carbon sequestration
Author(s): 
Rickenbach, Mark
Institution: 
UW-Madison

Quantifying the Economic and Ecological Aspects of Forest Biomass Harvesting in Wisconsin

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Martin, Karl J.
Institution: 
WDNR

Maximizing Ecological Services and Economic Returns by Targeted Establishment of Biomass Yielding Grasslands in Wisconsin

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Dornbush, Mathew
Institution: 
UW-Green Bay

Wisconsin NADP National Trends Network (NTN)

Subject: 
Particulate pollution
Author(s): 
Rodger, Bruce
Institution: 
WDNR Air Monitoring

A Collaborative and Regional Analysis of Bird and Bat Mortality at Three Wind Farms in Southeastern Wisconsin

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Drake, David
Institution: 
UW-Madison

Wisconsin Mercury Deposition Network (MDN)

Subject: 
Mercury
Author(s): 
Rodger, Bruce
Institution: 
WDNR Air Monitoring

Coordinated Energy Strategies for Climate and Air Quality

Subject: 
Climate change
Author(s): 
Holloway, Tracey, Nemet, Gregory
Institution: 
UW-Madison, SAGE

Economic and Environmental Impact of Biomass Types for Bioenergy Power Plants

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Runge, Troy
Institution: 
UW-Madison

Assessing Long-term Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change Across Wisconsin

Subject: 
Climate change
Author(s): 
Mednick, Adam
Institution: 
WDNR

Assessing the Ecological Risk of Mercury Exposure to Common Loons

Subject: 
Mercury
Author(s): 
Kenow, Kevin P., Meyer,
Institution: 
USGS, WDNR

An Ecosystem Management Approach to Biomass Production in Southern Wisconsin

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Sample, David
Institution: 
WDNR

Assessment of Photovoltaics at High Penetration on Peak Demand and Annual Energy Use

Subject: 
Renewable energy
Author(s): 
Klein, S.A., Reindl, D.T., Nellis, G.F.
Institution: 
UW-Madison, Dept. of Mech Engineering

Contributions of Fossil Fuel-Fired Electric Power Generation to PM2.5 Concentrations in Wisconsin

Subject: 
Particulate pollution
Author(s): 
Schauer, James
Institution: 
UW-Madison, Engineering